Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: All right, let's go ahead and get started. Hello everyone. Good evening, good morning, good afternoon from wherever you are. Welcome from,  Well, I'm in rainy Alabama right now, but Erica's over in very, very sunny and hot Austin, Texas. But welcome to Knowbility's Be A Digital Ally, Visual Information Part two.

We do have some slides for you, I'm going to ask Erica to just go ahead and put those in the chat for everybody. It is a Bitly link, it will take you to Google Slides, to document. But if you prefer a PowerPoint or PDF instead, I know some people have some difficulty with accessing Google Drive, please just let us know.

We're more than happy to send that over to you. So if you need a different format, just put it in the chat, we'll talk to you afterwards. But so the link is a Bitly link, it's a B-I-T-.-L-Y/July with a capital J and then all upper case letters, B-A-D-A. So bit.ly/JulyBADA and the J is capitalized and B-A-D-A is capitalized.

Erica Braverman: I'm pulling them up.

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: Perfect.

Erica Braverman: Yeah.

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: All right. So welcome everybody. Thank you for letting us be a part of your accessibility journey. And as always, we strive to create inclusive and accessible spaces, and we do that in a couple different ways, right?

We try to provide materials and formats and things that will work best for you. We always try to stay and be polite and kind and respectful as always in our discourse and our conversations in chat. And then lastly, of course, ensure accessibility.

All right, so just some quick introductions, it's just the two of us today. You've got the dynamic duo here. I am Jay McKay, I'm the director of community programs here at Knowbility and my partner in crime today.

Erica Braverman: I'm Erica Braverman. I am our community engagement specialist, and I do a lot with managing our usability testing program.

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: Excellent. All right. So just a quick little intro about Knowbility. We were founded in 1999. We are a 501(c)(3) nonprofit. We are based locally in Austin, Texas, where Erica is, but we operate globally. It's real fun when you have to schedule things with people in England and India and everywhere else in the world. And your gym instructor looks at you funny, because you have to leave class early, because you've got a zoom meeting at 6:00 AM, but that's what makes it fun.

So our mission of course, is to create an inclusive digital world for people with disabilities. And so we do that in several different ways through our education, our advocacy and accessibility. And so through our community programs, we have such things as our AIR Competition, which is currently happening right now. That is our eight week web design accessibility competition that you can register for.

We have our AccessU which is our annual accessibility conference. We are wrapping up the learning center on that right now, so if you missed AccessU 2022, you will be able to get access to those materials through an after AccessU ticket, that will be available soon.

Our AccessWorks program like Erica mentioned is our usability testing program. Several things under our K12 Digital Accessibility, including our K12 Access Summit, this is our annual accessibility and education conference that will be happening next Tuesday. We're very excited about that.

And then lastly, of course Be A Digital Ally, which you are here doing tonight. So we always bring all of these things up to let you know that without you, without your support of donations and sponsors, these programs can't happen. So if you want to contribute, we highly encourage it, we are always grateful, and that is knowbility.org/donate.

Okay. So for those of you who are new to Be A Digital Ally and you're not sure what's going on here, it is a monthly series with the goal to cover basic skills and principles behind accessible digital design. So the idea is that we want to make digital content accessible to people with disabilities.

That includes how do I do something on social media? What's it going to look like on my webpage? What are some things that I can do to make better emails? So we try to cover the full gambit of digital content.

And really this is a webinar series for any content creators of any skill level and especially those that are new to accessibility. So the examples I always give, if you're the person that got voluntold that you are now the social media manager for your organization, because you're the one with a working Facebook Page, maybe that's how you came to find us. Or maybe you are a seasoned web developer, but you want a little bit more background knowledge and a little bit more in depth in starting on that accessibility journey.

Okay. So for today, just a little bit of what our learning objectives are and what to expect in this evening, we'll do a brief overview of what accessibility means or what it is, the types of visual impairment. So last week we talked about the different types of visual information and all those different forms, right.

We talked about images and graphs and things like that. So today we're talking about all the different types of visual impairments and how those can impact how people are viewing or perceiving that visual information. We'll also talk about several types of assistive technology, most of which are already built into your computers and your phones, and we'll talk a little bit about where you can find those.

And then lastly, of course we want to talk about those best considerations and best practices in designing and formatting your visual information so it can be more accessible and perceivable to your viewers.

Okay. So for those of you who are frequent visitors, my joke is if you sat with us before and come to this, the next 10 minutes may not apply to you. But it's always good to review the information, especially for those that are new and joining us.

So if you need to grab a cup of coffee real quick, please, by all means. But I always like to stick around for these too, because sometimes there's always a little new nugget of knowledge.

Okay. So what is accessibility? And we want to make sure that we're actually defining what that means because the word accessible can mean a lot of different things to people. Some people think because something's available means it's now accessible. And we really want to try to make sure that we're talking specifically about accessibility for people with disabilities.

So what I've done here is I've taken two definitions. One is from the w3.org and then the other is from AEM or aem.cast.org. And I've combined their two definitions of accessibility and kind of put them into one.

So for something to be accessible, the idea is that people need to be able to perceive, right. Can they see and hear the content? Can they understand, do they know where to go, what they're supposed to do on that page or what to expect when they click on a link.

Navigate, can they independently navigate, you know,  to those various elements on your page using their preferred tools. So if there's somebody that doesn't necessarily use a standard mouse and keyboard, can they still get to those different links, those different tools on the site.

Interact, can they independently complete tasks and explore all the areas? So again, you know, using their preferred tools, can they get to where they need to go, but then can they also complete those steps? Can they complete the tasks? Are they having to skip something or avoid something because it's not accessible to them.

And then lastly, can they contribute? Can they fully participate in an authentic manner? And to me, that's always kind of like the big overarching thought  when I'm creating a digital space or digital content and I want people to interact with it, can they provide them their full response?

Do they feel like they're having to kind of shortchange themselves or not give a full picture of what is meaningful to them when they're engaging in discussion and things. So we want to make sure that they're able to fully participate.

So why is it important to design for accessibility? Other than the fact that, really, we want to make sure everybody has their voice heard and it's so important for people to be able to access the things that they need. But let's put some numbers to it.

So this is from the World Health Organization, their report on disability from 2011. 15% of the world's population has some form of disability. Now, what's interesting with that is there are several people out in the world who may not label themselves or consider themselves disabled as defined by WHO.

And we bring that up because sometimes when we're designing for accessibility, we're not just designing necessarily for those that we think are disabled or that they themselves think are disabled. But really good accessible design is going to benefit everybody. Even people who don't have any type of disability are going to benefit from accessibility.

And my lazy example always is captions, right. I know there are some people that do find captions to be distracting and things like that, but by having those available, captions can really benefit several people that may not actually have any type of disability.

Okay. So one of the other things we like to do is always pull some stats and some information based off of what we're going to be talking about for today's topic. So we found some interesting things in terms of how people are receiving visual information, especially in digital formats.

So 81 or 81.9, I almost wanted to round it up to 82%, of survey respondents use dark mode on their phones. And we'll talk a little bit more about what dark mode is, but that's a significant amount of users, 81 to 82% are using dark mode. Over 50% of computer users are reporting eye fatigue or eye strain of some kind. When you go into more specifics and different populations, of course those numbers increase. But really just overall in general, we're seeing 50% of computer users are reporting eye fatigue.

85% of Americans own a smartphone, as opposed to previous years where it was still kind of like in the 40s and 50s. So we're now up to like 85% of people owning smartphones, and over 50% of their internet use is on those mobile devices. So when we think about how people are engaging with our content, are we designing for a desktop, are we designing for a mobile device, are we designing something that will work on both spaces.

And then approximately one in three adults have a vision reducing eye condition by the age of 65. So again, looking at as our population ages, they're going to have more vision reducing conditions. So just some stats to think about and to again, kind of tie into why accessibility is so important.

All right. Oh, there we go. So we are going to talk about assistive technology a little bit later, but I wanted to give some definitions first. And so this first one is coming from the World Health Organization or, No, I'm sorry, It's coming from ATIA. I have them flipped around.

So this one's from ATIA, which is the Assistive Technology Industry Association, and they say, "It's any item, piece of equipment, software program or product system that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a person with disabilities."

So really we're saying it could be the straw in your junk drawer, it could be the iPad that you just bought, it could be the highly customized wheelchair. So really anything that is specifically going to be used to increase, maintain, or improve the capabilities.

World Health Organization kind of adds on to that. So they're specifically talking about promotion of inclusion and participation, specifically of persons with disabilities and aging populations and people with non-communicable diseases. And then again, talking about that purpose, you know,  being to improve their functioning and independence, thereby promoting their wellbeing.

So it really ties into the, why is it important for us to maintain and improve? It's because we want to increase that independence and wellbeing.

Okay. So just some brief examples of assistive technology that you may be familiar with and then later on, we're going to go into some more specifics. But screen readers, right, those pieces of software that run on someone's desktop that will help somebody who is blind or visually impaired navigate through a computer. Because if they can't point a mouse to a specific file folder, they have to find some way to tell them where that file folder is.

Refreshable Brail, so that is those devices that have the bumps that will raise up and as the person is reading the text, it will change that Braille on that device. So that's why it's refreshable Brail.

Alternative navigation methods, so some people can't use a touch pad, right. So if you hand somebody an iPhone or an iPad and they have limited use of their arms or hands, or maybe they have difficulty with, you know,  using an index finger or something like that, they need an alternative navigation method.

 Some people can't use a standard mouse, or maybe they can't use a standard keyboard and need something that's specialized.

Close captions, we've talked about before. Transcripts. Magnification, so that's making items bigger. And then dark mode and high contrast, which actually will go into more depth later. And then of course, always, we encourage you to check out the WebAIM examples. They have some nice videos, a little bit more in depth explanation on these as well as other examples.

All right, so we're going to dive right in. But of course, as always, when we start our journey, we want to remember the words of Maya Angelou, "Do the best you can until you know better. Then when you know better, you do better." And that's just a reminder for us because accessibility is always changing, right, there's no end point.

You start somewhere, you learn how to do it, then you're going to learn the next thing and then you're going to do the next thing. Which is why you're here joining us every month, and we're so excited that you do that.

All right. So to get us started, I just want to go over some different types of visual impairments and really kind of talk about what that means for those users. So here we have a list of other visual impairments other than blindness that can impact web use, or when I'm viewing a website.

We're talking about low vision, visual acuity, light sensitivity, color, or excuse me, contrast sensitivity, field of vision and color vision, and we'll go into depth on these right now.

All right. So low vision refers to the visual impairments other than blindness, sometimes known as partially sighted or sight impaired. And in many contacts, contexts, there we go, low vision only includes impairments that are not corrected with glasses and contact lenses, medicine or surgery.

So, because I wear glasses, I'm not considered to have low vision, because it's corrected with my glasses. In some context though, such as some social program benefits, people are classified as having low vision or being legally blind.

So you may know some people who are legally blind that do have some usable vision. It might be where they need to enlarge font to a very large size on a screen, or maybe they need it printed out for them. It might be that they not only have to have that, but maybe the screen has to be super bright, so they're not having to deal with too dim of a screen.

So they may have some vision, but they can still be considered legally blind. I actually have quite a few friends of mine who that is their situation, where there is some vision but they're still considered legally blind.

All right, next one is visual acuity. And this is the measure of the ability of the eye to distinguish shapes and the details of objects at a given distance, right. So how am I perceiving text, because I need to see those different types of shapes and that's going to affect the text size and the font, and we'll really kind of dive into those deeper later.

Spacing, right,  is going to also affect how well I can see and distinguish those shapes. And then identifying elements, so if you have icons or images that I'm supposed to locate to navigate to, my visual acuity may have impact how well I'm able to find those elements.

Next is light sensitivity. So many people with low vision have a high sensitivity to bright lights and colors. And so this can make content difficult or impossible to see, or it can give the user eye pain or headaches.

So I have another friend who, if it's super bright, it's going to be very, very difficult for them to interact with that digital content, if they're not able to adjust the brightness level. User needs, right, adjust the brightness and color, and dark mode and high contrast mode. So we'll talk a little bit more about those in the upcoming slides.

So contrast sensitivity, it's just kind of like that idea of the brightness, but it's between bright and dim areas of the image, right. So contrast is based on brightness. So the way I kind of think of it is I need to make sure that there's no shadowy elements, right.

So if I'm looking at text and you have the text and you can kind of do like the shadow box or the shadowing effect, that might make it very difficult for me to actually see the content now, because I can't really distinguish between those bright and dim areas.

Field of vision, so this is the area from which a person is able to take in that visual information when looking forward, right, so if I'm looking forward at the screen.

And there's different types of vision, field of vision loss. The first one is central, so that means that the very front of, Like if I'm staring straight forward, right in front of me could be reduced or absent, right in the middle. Peripheral vision loss, also known as tunnel vision. So it's they can't really see from the sides and they can really only see from the center position.

And then there's other types of field loss, may be patches of vision, may be like a ring or just maybe the right side or the left side of their vision, maybe at the top, at the bottom, maybe it's the bottom left corner. It can be wherever, but it's those scattered patches of obscured vision. Which again, as I'm looking at my screen could impact how I'm navigating.

Color vision. Some people cannot see certain colors well or at all, and that's usually due to some eficiencies in the cone receptors of their eye. And of course, we see this very commonly and one to 12 men have it, and one to 100 women.

And color vision can really vary, there's several

Erica Braverman: Right. So I'm going to step in here, because it looks like Jay might have frozen. I know she's having some bad weather where she is. All right.

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: Okay.

Erica Braverman: So I'm just going to pick up with visual acuity. Great. I think that Jay had left off just sort of summarizing for us that this really has to do with how people would interpret things at different distances. So spacing is very important, just kind of giving people accuracy where they're coming from. An example of this would be extreme nearsightedness. And I'm going to move to the next. Am I going in the right direction?

Yes, all right. Then I'm going to move on to light sensitivity. And a lot of people with low vision will also have light sensitivity to bright light, bright colors. And this will not only make the content difficult or impossible to see, but it can give the user eye pain and headaches and that can come on pretty frequently depending on how sensitive they are to light.

So what users really need in this situation is the ability to adjust brightness and color, make sure that there's not too much light coming in from their screen or their device. And the technologies that support this would be dark mode and high contrast mode, which we'll get into later.

Similarly, is contrast sensitivity and this has less to do with the total amount of light that's coming out. But it is the distinction between bright and dim areas in images, because that contrast is based on brightness. Bright parts of your screen have more light coming out and dim areas have less.

So that contrast sensitivity is the ability to distinguish between those two. Not everyone is able to perceive that distinction, so that's important to consider that in our design as well.

Field of vision is the area from where people can take in that visual information. And this could be different for different users depending on the type of disability they have. Some people have central field loss where their vision is reduced or absence in the middle of your eye. If you think of your eye as sort of an XY grid, I guess, in the middle of the grid would be the vision loss.

Sometimes it's peripheral field loss and people can't see the outside of their field of vision, but they can see right in the middle, sometimes called tunnel vision. I was talking to someone who describes her vision as coffee straw vision, as if she was looking through one of those little coffee straws that you can use as a stirrer.

So sometimes this can be pretty pronounced. And then other field loss, people who have scattered patches of obscured vision or ring of field loss, have field loss in the right or left part of the vision or other field loss. Sometimes after you've had an eye injury, you might just kind of see the top part of your vision or just be missing a particular patch.

So this can occur in all different ways for different people. It looks like Jay is back. Oops, did I go too far? Nope. I keep clicking the wrong thing, y'all are very patient. Color vision. I think we've hit color vision, Jay? Okay, am I going the wrong way? And then.

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: Yep. I think we're on to fatigue. There we go.

Erica Braverman: Fatigue, great. Well, speaking of fatigue, it's the end of the day. So I mean, everyone's got their camera off, so you don't need to turn your camera on, but if you are, You've hit the end of your work week and you've been looking at a screen all week and you're feeling that general fatigue or eye fatigue, you can raise your hand just for yourself or for the group. This is something that a lot of us run into, I know I do.

But it can be especially pronounced for people who have low vision or other types of vision impairment. And that's when your eyes get tired or strained or it's just hard to look at the screen, it's hard to take in the information.

Some people get tired in the eyes faster than others. So it has to do with the brightness of the device, this has to do with the clarity of the device, could be coming from dots-per-inch or DPI, is a common abbreviation. Maybe it's a fuzzier image where you have to squint and strain, sometimes it's very clear.

Lighting, how much lighting is in your environment. Glare, you have too much lighting in your environment. Distance and angle, if it's a small screen or far away and you're straining, like if you're using a mobile phone a lot.

And then movement, if you're reading on a train, if you are reading on the bus on the way to work and you're reading on your screen and it's wiggling around, that can also cause fatigue.

 Yeah. So Rebecca just shared, it can give her migraines and she had to move to reading glasses with blue light filters. Ooh, Rebecca, I'm glad you mentioned your reading glasses. I'm going to save that for a bit down the line.

All right, so we're going to move ahead to our assistive technologies that specifically address these types of vision loss. And I have linked here in the slides, you can find this link, a really great source on all these different technologies. Great source in general, and it's the accessibility project, but it's written as A11Y Project. A fantastic resource on digital accessibility and they have some really good information about these technologies that we're getting into.

And there's a plethora of them, lots of different, They're all called modes. So keep modes in mind. If you've watched The Incredibles, just think like Edna Mode, for all of these different modes.

And we're going to start with the first mode, which is a familiar mode to many of us, I happen to use it myself, which is dark mode. And what this dark mode does is it takes the whites and light grays on a user interface and it switches them to darker colors, usually in black or a dark gray. And conversely that black or dark colored text, that would be on the interface, becomes white or a light gray.

So it really flips that around. And I have some examples here, these are actually screenshots from my phone. On the left side, I have the display menu in standard mode. So it's a white, really more of a very light gray background. The text is black, there's some dark orange text and dark gray toggle buttons.

But then I flipped it to dark mode, which is the photo on the right, it's a black background.

 It's interesting on the toggle buttons, it looks like the one where I turned the dark theme on that one became a little lighter, but the other one seemed to stay the same. But while that background went to black, the text became that light gray and that dark gray text became a, Or that dark orange text became a very, very light orange. So it really flips that black and white.

So dark mode helps users who are in a low light environment and some light sensitive users and it may reduce their eye strain. I find that it reduces my eye strain, which is why I like using it. And dark mode will work on all the interfaces of the operating system that supports it.

What? Means, that if you have an iPhone, if something is part of your iPhone, so any of the internal apps, the settings, the accessibility page, the search function, all the stuff that comes with your phone will work with the dark mode.

If there's an app that's developed by that operating system but didn't necessarily come with your phone, it will also work with dark mode. Third party apps and websites have to be coded correctly to work in conjunction with that dark mode. So there could be some variation in what it displays and doesn't.

We're going to move on to kind of what I think is a sister mode to dark mode, which is night mode. And getting back to what Rebecca was saying about the blue light filters on her reading glasses, night mode functions like those reading glasses. It takes colors that include intense blue light, and it switches them to warmer, dimmer tones.

And I have a photo here, I didn't take this photo. I think this is a really cool photo though, this is from How-To Geek. And it's two photos that have been sort of spliced together.

The first photo is of a computer desktop in standard mode, sort of a mountain scene, and the sky especially is pretty bright. There's a little bit of blue in the sky and then a sunset. And then they took a photo of the same screen in night mode and they put sort of half and half together. So the left half is standard, the right half is night mode.

The night mode side is much more orange, the light is dimmer, the blue has diminished and those reds and oranges are really coming out. And then there's a window in the middle and it's kind of gray on the left, but much more orange on the right side.

And the thing to remember with night mode is that not all those colors with intense blue light appear to be blue. Colors are really a combination of red, green, and blue. Talking about the RGB values, red, green, and blue.

And so it won't be that there's no more blue or it will only affect things that are blue, it'll really affect intensely bright things on the screen and it'll make your screen more on the orangey-red side. Just like with dark mode, some people prefer night mode because it can reduce eye strain or make it easier to sleep after using a device with this filter enabled.

I was reading an article that I thought was pretty interesting. It was about people who were really devoted to the Paleo diet and CrossFit and things like that, and built their lifestyle around it. And a lot of the people they interviewed did use special reading glasses to mimic more of a natural sunlight, to be extra Paleo. Obviously in the Paleolithic era, we weren't using computers. And those glasses functioned by removing the bright blue light from your screen.

Night mode is different from dark mode because it affects all the content displayed on the screen. So it doesn't matter who built the app, it doesn't matter who built the website, it's filtering everything coming out of the screen.

We're going to go to another type of filtering mode, this is filtered colors mode. And what filtered colors mode does is it changes the color palette that the device displays on the screen. Or it could remove the color palette and display everything in gray scale. And what filtered colors mode does is it can help people who are colorblind or people who simply process the screen content better with adjusted colors or gray scale.

So I have an example here of an image in gray scale and the image from whence it came before it was switched to gray scale. This is from Pexels, but the photographer is Anastasia Shuraeva, and it's a photo of a painter's palette. There's a white background, a white palette, there's a bright red paint brush and then there's green, red, yellow, and blue paint.

But when it switches to gray scale, all of those colors are replaced with a darker gray or a lighter gray. So the green paint becomes kind of a darker gray as does the blue, and the red and yellow because they're lighter colors are lighter grays.

Similarly, the paint brush also becomes kind of a medium gray. So all the color is removed. And then another example of filtered colors mode is removing certain colors and replacing them with distinctions from other colors. "What? What in the world is she talking about?"

Frequently, these filtered colors options are set up for common types of color blindness. So for example, if you have protanopia, which is red/green color blindness, you don't detect red. If you have deuteranopia, it's green/red color blindness, you don't detect green. And then blue/yellow colorblindness is tritanopia.

So what these modes do, these preset colorblindness modes, is they'll remove the color that you wouldn't be able to perceive and use variations of other colors to replicate the experience of different colors.

So I have, I went to the, If you like cooking and spending money, you might recognize these screenshots I took. This is from the Le Creuset website, they do cookware enameled in all different types of colors.

So on the top, I took a photo of all their different color offerings, it's a bunch of pot lids. And what I really want to draw attention to is the upper left hand corner, they have red, orange and yellow as three of their options.

I applied the protanopia filter, which removes reds. And what it did was it took those red, orange and yellow and made them different shades of pink, which is more blue. It uses variations in the amount of blue to help support the user.

So the red became a dark fuchsia, the orange is now a bright pink, and then the yellow is a pale pink. But then some of the other colors that don't have so much red were less affected.

And then we're going to go to inverted colors mode, back with our paint palette. And what inverted colors mode does is it reverses the color of every pixel on the screen. So it doesn't matter if it's text, a picture, part of the desktop, it will just reverse every color.

So black elements will become white and vice versa. Shades of gray will flip-flop, lighter to darker, and then colors will switch to the value on the opposite side of the color wheel. So if you are curious about how this would affect a particular color, find that color on the color wheel and draw a line straight across to its opposite.

So back to our paint palette, what happens here, that white becomes a gray, the white of the palette in the background, and then all of our colors flip-flop, both in darkness, lightness and the color wheel. So that dark green paint is now a light pink, that red paint and paintbrush is now turquoise. Our yellow paint is now blue and our blue paint is now yellow because those are really opposites on the color wheel.

And some users will turn on their inverted colors mode as a next best alternative for websites or apps that don't support dark mode. Inverted colors can support users who want to avoid eye strain or fatigue or people who have certain types of light sensitivity, or low vision. And this will affect, as I said, everything displayed on the screen, it doesn't matter what it is.

Why is it a next best alternative? Sometimes it's because everything on the screen is in inverted colors mode. For example, if you want your text in inverted mode, but you don't want that for your videos, you don't have control over that in this mode. So some people prefer it more than others.

We're going to go onto something similar to inverted colors mode, but this is a little bit different because it only affects things like text and headings, links, things like that. It's high contrast mode. And high contrast mode maximizes the contrast between the background, background color of the screen, and any text on that background.

So it just pretty much affects the color contrast between the text and background. And that high contrast mode will help users who have low vision or light sensitivity. It's a pretty common tool. So this mode comes with several preset color themes or users can customize their own.

Yellow text on a black background is a pretty common choice. And I have an example here of a webpage, this is Smashing Magazine, a screenshot. If you're a UX Person, you've probably spent a lot of time on this website. And this has a black background, it has all of the link text in purple and then the paragraph text is in yellow, so it is following that common preset. And then the placeholder text is bright green, so it's taking a more typical palette and it's turning it into maximized contrast.

Now, high contrast mode can be a little complex because it's only available on Windows devices, if they're version 7 or later. It will work on apps developed by Microsoft as well as most third party apps, but the browser is where you might find that it doesn't work all the time.

It will work on Internet Explorer or Microsoft Edge Browsers, depending on the version of the device. So if you're switching versions, it might flip-flop between which browser you can use. However, there's a new updated iteration of this mode, it's called Forced Colors Mode and I think it just came out this spring. But that works on all browsers, so that's kind of a step up if you like to use different browsers.

Now, how well this high contrast mode will work on a website, depends on the quality of the code. So if your code is written very accessibly and it's written to be compatible with high contrast mode, it should be pretty seamless. If the code is not quite up to snuff, maybe it won't work as much as you'd like, but most websites will work at least partially.

And then we did something that was just for windows, this next one, increased contrast mode is just for Mac. It's available only on Mac devices, so Mac OS or iOS. And it's designed specifically to work with those gray shades on Mac displays, a lot of light gray on a Mac, like a browser window or some of the menus.

And what this increased contrast setting does, it alters the color values to increase the difference between the different shades of gray. So if you've got two relatively similar shades right next to each other, one gets a little lighter, one gets a little darker to increase the contrast. And then it'll also add a more prominent border to the edge of elements like buttons or text fields.

I took a screenshot on my Mac of the top left corner of my screen. It's got the task bar and it's got the upper left hand corner of the Knowbility website with the tab, the URL bar.

 And when it's in standard mode, I get a blue task bar with white text and I get a white browser tab, I get a light gray URL.

But then when I switch it to increased contrast mode, I get a light gray task bar with black text, a little more prominent, I get a heavy border around my tab. And then I get a lighter colored URL space, URL field with a gray border around that. So it helps me pick out those elements if I turn that on. Increased contrast mode will help users who have certain types of vision loss, such as blurry vision, such as if you have some types of macular degeneration, or if you have a lower quality display in what you're perceiving is coming through as just more blurry.

This setting will only affect elements that are directly created by Apple. So if you have a Mac anything, menus on your desktop, things like that, or things that use Apple's interface library. It won't affect websites or web apps because those are created independently. A lot of modes, we've more modes coming.

This next one is reader mode. And reader mode makes written content on websites easier to read, because it removes extra content that surrounds the text like words and paragraphs. It could remove the header, the footer, the sidebar, those ads that could come up in the sidebar.

And it might also change some features of the text, such as font or spacing. Reader mode can support a lot of different types of users. It could support users who have mobility related disabilities, people of cognitive or learning disabilities and they need a clearer reading environment. People with certain vision related disabilities or people who just kind of want a nice uncluttered reading experience, they prefer the reader mode, especially for longer pieces of content.

Reader mode is not available in all web browsers. This is available in some but not all, and it will only affect the content displayed within that browser window. There's also some plugins that you can add to your browser to force the reader mode, even if it's not an option from the browser itself.

Now I have an example here. This is a screenshot of the Times. The article is a review of a TV show called Super Telescope, kind of thematic because we just had the James Webb Telescope. And it's a pretty simple page, but there's still a lot going on.

Besides the title, the article, there's a star rating of the show, four out of five stars. There's a menu at the top of the screen, there's a photo of the author and then there's some links to the previous and next articles at the bottom of the screen. If I switch this to reader mode, it takes away the menu, it takes away the links to other articles, it takes away the photo.

All that is replaced, there's a little simple link to the homepage, the times.co.uk. And it still has the title, the text, the author's name, the star rating, but all those extra things are removed. There is interestingly an extra little menu, it's got an X to exit the reader mode.

But then there's also options to alter the text and font, an option to have the article read to you, you get an audio version of the article, and then another menu for extra page settings. So you get a lot more options when you go into reader mode, it's kind of cool.

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: And just to clarify, depending on the type of reader mode you are using based on platform or extension, that menu may or may not be there or it may look a little different.

Erica Braverman: Yes, that's correct. Different browsers will do reader mode in different ways, and then if you're using the plugin versus a browser, it could have different options. It's a very, very good thing to keep in mind.

Next one is reduced motion mode and like its name, it reduces the motion. It will slow down or stop any animations on the screen. This can help users who have cognitive disabilities, certain types of photo sensitivity, types of neurological conditions, or if they have a slow internet or older device and they don't have the bandwidth for animation.

Reduced motion mode will work on all interfaces of the operating system that will support it, so kind of like the dark mode. If it's a Mac device, then if the interface supports Mac, great, same for windows, as well as apps developed by the OS. Those third party apps and websites, again, must be coded correctly to work in conjunction with this mode.

And then last but not least, some people make their own mode, customized user settings. So this is really up to the individual user, what works for them. So some people will use multiple modes together. They might use reader mode and high contrast mode together, or they might use a customized mode or modes for their own taste, to make things successful, make things pleasant to use.

Some of these modes do allow customization within them, just like the little menu on the reader mode, you could make lots of customizations. High contrast and filtered colors have different palettes to choose from. So those allow users to customize settings or make their own system entirely.

And then other users with coding experience will even go ahead and write their own CSS and use it on their device, and they'll make their own mode, their own personal mode. At our AccessU conference in May, we had a presenter, her name is Tori Clark, and she actually did a wonderful presentation on dark mode.

And she is a mode user, she was telling us that she's had post-concussion disorder. And she is obviously very, very code-y. And she wrote her own color palette for her computer and she calls that her concussion mode. So people can come up with whatever they like. And I'm going to bounce this back over to Jay for considerations.

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: All right, we're going to have you.

Erica Braverman: We're going to make her the host-

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: No. Let's not do that, because it's still raining pretty bad out here.

Erica Braverman: I will be the host.

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: Yes. Birmingham loves its rain and rainstorms and likes to knock out my internet for about 30 seconds, and lets me panic around my house. So thank you everyone. And of course you have lovely Erica here to steer the ship, so it's no problem whatsoever.

So next, what we want to do is, So we've talked about all these different types of visual impairments and now we've kind of talked about all these different types of assistive technology that can assist people with these visual impairments. So now you might be thinking, oh well, we're good, we're done, right? That's all they need. We've got these things that they can use.

Yes and no, because like we said, a lot of these are, They can only do so much, right. if it's not built into the. If the program isn't designed to recognize it, right, if it's certain apps that they're not designed to recognize it, those modes won't work and other things like that.

But we also think it's important just to remember that those exist because when you're designing, if people are putting things in that night mode or in that inverted color mode, it's important to know, well, how's that going to look then when I'm designing my sites?

So what we've done here is take some considerations and a big source of this, of course, was our friends from W3. And go ahead and let's click the next slide there.

So what we're going to do is just run over some of these considerations, what we mean by them and then how that can impact. So first thing we want to talk about, to consider when you're designing, is your brightness and color. We've talked about this quite a bit already.

Brightness can affect people with low vision in a variety of ways. Sometimes we think brightness is helpful and for other people it's not. And then even if a page has what reads, According to WCAG guidelines, if it reads as a AAA or a AA as a good color contrast, a user with a light sensitivity may still find it difficult to use.

I know one of our presenters at AccessU was very cognizant of this. And she put up the display and said, "Hey everybody. I know that this particular display that you're looking at is not a good contrast by WCAG standards. She said, "However, I find that people with light sensitivity do not do well with this particular format," that she had and the content that she had, if she did do the correct color contrast. But she told everybody, "Look, if you need the other one, I've got it, don't worry about it." But she was cognizant of that and made sure that she had those available for people.

All right, let's go to the next one. Something else that I thought was great, and this comes from our own Julie Romanowski over at Knowbility. And she wanted to remind people about when they're making branding, so if they're making their logos and looking at brand colors. She said, "This could be a hugely expensive mistake to not consider adequate contrast for those brand colors."

So they're trying to find what's the hot trend, what are the good colors to go with. But if you don't think about accessibility with that, then you can find out, after you've paid your money to the graphic designer and after you've paid your money to everybody else to get all of this branding done, that now it's going to require redesigns because they don't work well, that it has bad contrast settings. That's a lot of extra money that you potentially could be spending or a whole lot of extra work if you're the person that was doing the designing too.

All right. So next we want to talk about tracking, and that's how somebody is following the lines of text, right. So for most of us, we start from right to left, then we go down the page. Left to right, yeah, that's what I meant to say. So we go left to right, down the page.

So a user needs to be able to follow from one end of the text to the other, and then also find the next line of text easily. So when you're thinking about your website layout, and especially if you've got different blocks of text, maybe you've got things in columns, think about do they know how to get to where they need to go for the next line.

Long lines of text can be very difficult to read, so if it's just one big, long line of text, right, do they have to use horizontal scrolling? So scrolling all the way to the right to get to that end of the sentence, and then having to scroll all the way back to start the next sentence.

Think about vertical scrolling as well. So how much scrolling are they having to do to get to the next line? And then next, we want to talk a little bit about hyphenation. So for some, having that hyphenation can be difficult to read, they can find it distracting. But at the same time, others can find it very useful for a larger text.

So this is something, especially if you are some of our more seasoned people here in coding and things like that. Finding a way to have that hyphenation turn on and off maybe something you want to investigate. If you don't, it's just something you need to be aware of, of how does this look on the page? What could potentially affect a user?

Erica Braverman: And Herin had a great comment in the chat. She mentioned that she sees the branding issue in all different places. Also, thanks for the tip about images and CSS, that images inserted using CSS are often removed in a lot of the modes.

So if you have like a button with an image, remember that users won't get that image, they won't perceive the image. I'm going to hang on to that because that's going to come in handy a little bit later. So thanks Herin.

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: Yes. Thanks for popping that in now. Perfect. All right, so next we're going to talk about perceiving, and that is how well the user can recognize individual letters as well as the non-text information and the interface elements.

So thinking about our text, right , what kind of text are we using? The font, the type of font that we're using. The style, bold can be easier for quite a few people, it might be something to consider. But also remember, some people love to do a lot of underlined or italicized, but if you have blocks and blocks of underlying text or italicized text, that can be very difficult for some people to read.

Capitalization, making sure that sentences are capitalized can be very helpful, of course. But try to avoid having all caps, especially if you're doing large amounts of text, because that can be very difficult to read.

And then again, thinking about the size of those elements, right, so not just your text and things like that, but we are talking about your buttons. If you have an image that they're supposed to be navigating to, how big are those and are they able to easily perceive it and tell what that button is or what that icon is and perceive that image?

All right. Next, we want to talk about spacing for reading. So space between the lines, between the words and the letters can all impact readability. And then in our research, something that was interesting that I hadn't thought of before. I always hate justification. I just do. I'll admit it, I don't like it. It annoys me, it throws me off because it's hard for me to figure out where the next line starts.

However, for certain types of text, especially depending on your layouts, you may find that having that justification may be very easy or easier for tracking.

 And some people do find that they prefer that justification. But something to think about when you do that justification, right , and justification isn't everything goes to the right, everything goes to the left or everything is centered. It's I'm going to make a center square, and then everything's going to fill that square.

But then that can create those rivers of white or those big gaps of text or between the text. For some people that can be very jarring or it can be difficult for them to track to the next line. So again, it's one of those things that when you're building it, think about how users are perceiving it and how they're going to be interacting with it. Yeah, when the spacing is increased, yes, and also with this dyslexia fonts. Excellent.

All right. So next we want to talk about identifying elements. And think about how you are distinguishing things like your headings and your lists. If we just think about typically how we would normally do headings, we'd say, "Okay, here's heading one, here's heading two and here's heading three."

And most of us think about a title's going to be this big, so maybe it's going to be like 30 something and then a heading one's going to be 20 something font. But if I have a lot of heading twos that are already like 16 point or 20 point font, that could cause a lot of problems on the space that I'm designing on. So sometimes just having everything proportionally increased for the headings may cause some spacing and reading issues.

So to mitigate that, some people will use things like a different font type or a different color or some kind of indentation, which is fine, which is good. It makes things a little visually easier to read, but then that also reminds us why it's so important to make sure we're using those things like our headings.

Because if I'm just relying on that font type for somebody to know that this is heading one and not actually having heading one in my code or in my template or in my text, if somebody's using a screen reader, they won't know that's heading one, they just see it as text.

So that's why, if you want to use those things like, oh, I want a different color, I want a different font type, that's why those headings and things are so important to make sure that you're utilizing them.

All right, point of regard and proximity. So we talked a little bit about this when we were doing the visual impairments and talking about the field of, loss of vision fields. So when we think about the point of regard is where the user is currently reading the site or what they're currently viewing.

And so what we need to think about is if they change the display, right, so if they need to increase the font size for themselves, or maybe they're using some kind of magnification tool, will they lose their place in the text, because of that change and how much will it shift?

So it's things that you need to think about when. The way you're designing your space is, you know, if they need to make that increase on their own, how much will get shifted and will they lose their spot? Again, thinking about pop-ups and magnifications.

And then the other thing to think about is the proximity of related information, and especially when you have to do things like magnification. So if I'm reading an article or I'm reading about somebody's services that they're providing, and it's telling me about some upcoming events, and if I want more information, they'd be happy to have me.

Hopefully that, you know, current events or sign up here, how far away is that, and especially if I need to increase font or if I need to magnify. How far away from the current information to the related information is it, and is it something that makes sense and for me to easily navigate to?

And then user setting. So we talked about users having all those customized modes, same thing when people are using your site or looking at your content, and if they're using, you know, increase the font size or change the font to this other font, how will this impact how they are able to read and navigate that site?

And I think we talked a little bit, or, well, we'll talk about it a little bit later on too, having yourself test a little bit when you're doing these things. Like what does it look like when I make these changes? And then another thing to think about is if the user needs to print, right, sometimes some of us still need to print a page, it just happens, but they need to keep that formatting that they changed it, right.

So if I changed all of your font from this. Maybe you're using Times Roman, but maybe I prefer Arial or maybe I needed to increase the font to like a point 22, will those stay when I print that page or will it not. So just things to think about, especially when you're kind of doing the deeper dive of your coding. How do I make sure that those customized settings are still reflecting in the printing. And we're looking at you, Apple, and your color filters.

Erica Braverman: Yeah, it was very hard to take those photos. Because the minute I changed my color filter back, it didn't matter what mode I was in when I took the screenshot, it just reverted to standard. We had a lot of fun with that one. All right, so.

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: All right, take us away.

Erica Braverman: I'll take you away. So if you're starting to feel like this is too many modes, I don't know how to code. How do I know which modes my user is going to want to use? How do I know which device? Some of these things are for Mac, some of these things are for Windows. I'm going to go live in a cave and scratch on a slate and not do anything else with my website ever again.

Don't worry about that because the nice thing here is that for all those modes, the user is selecting them. You don't have to worry because they already know which modes they like and which modes they want to use and how they want to set them up. All you need to do is in your design, just play nicely with the modes and they'll take it from there.

So we're going to jump into some best practices pretty quickly for, how do you set up your pages for the maximum mode compatibility and experience. We're going to start with the text and.

Yeah, Rebecca said, "You have to provide an electronic version of the slate scratching."

 We're not even going to get into that. That, you're going to figure out how to electrify the slate on your own. I don't think that's going to be a future BADA topic. That's a good comment, Rebecca.

So how can you display your text in a way that works with multiple color and contrast settings? Best practice, keep a high level of contrast between your text color and your background. Because even if the user adjusts the settings, then it's going to keep the contrast going every way.

So if you have the dark text on the light background, which is the best practice, and you've got black or dark gray on a white or light gray, if the user needs to flip that, they're still going to have good contrast because the values will flip. And so you're really setting them up for the best success they can. If they need reduced contrasts, they've put that setting in there. It will reduce from the good starting point and it won't over reduce.

Text should be on a solid background color instead of imposed over a photo because that way, the level of contrast is consistent. You don't have black on green and then black on brown and then black on red, you've got consistent contrast across the board.

Color and indicators. Does your site work as planned when the color palette changes? If you want to use colors and indicator, combine it with text labels or icons with proper alt text to. The color can still be an indicator, but it's not the sole indicator. It's got to be a supporting role.

And this is where Herin's comment about the images coming through in CSS is really important. Because if the mode removes images that are added in CSS, if that's where the icon is coming from, it's going to remove it. So I would actually say here, the text label is the best indicator you can offer followed by icons with proper alt text. But then you support users who might not have as much reading skills or background, or users exploring a language that's not their own.

Just make sure you're putting them in, in the right place and then adding your alt text. A good example here is visitors. If visitors to your site are selecting colors and swatches, like if you're buying a shirt or shoes or something and you're picking different colors, add a text label to indicate what the different colors are, so people know what they're choosing.

I remember a guy in one of our usability tests who was blind using a screen reader, he was picking a color, it's one of the tasks. And he said, "I don't see the color, but I sure want to know what it is." So that's a really great comment to describe the importance of letting people perceive in multiple ways. If you're not sure if your site is using color as a sole indicator, or maybe you've got stray images in your CSS, set the color on your computer to grayscale.

That won't actually affect the CSS images though, so maybe try a few different modes.

 But a good way to start looking at color as a sole indicator, set your filter to grayscale and have a friend to try and navigate the site. Not you because you already know where everything is, because you put it there.

But have a friend try and navigate the site and if they get stuck, because they can't figure out how to navigate and it's because the color is gone, then that's a good indication that you need to make some changes.

Animations and videos. So here you want to play so nicely with the mode, that you do all the work for it. Pretend that reduced motion mode does not exist and fix the problems before they start. What that means is all animations on your site must have, per WCAG, an accessible pause or stop feature after three seconds or less of playing time.

From personal you know, UX experience, I can tell you that three seconds is actually too long of a time for some users. The best practice is to turn off auto-play, don't allow auto-play on your site, and let the user decide if they want to turn the animation or video on. So nothing starts moving, it start stopped and then you decide to move it.

Text readability. So in this case, you really want to be your own reader mode and keep reader mode features in mind when you're designing. You want to keep your pages simple and free of clutter. You want to break the text into manageable sections, use headings to direct the reader, use an easy to read font at size 16 or larger on your webpage and then follow plain language principles.

And we have another. I was going to add a link here and I forgot. But we do have a previous BADA about plain language, which if you're curious about plain language, definitely check that out.

 

And then magnification. Good idea is to test your site at several levels of magnification, so up to 400% or more, so starting at 100%, then go 150, 200 on, to learn if and how the layout of your site changes when magnified and see if the user was magnifying. You're the user right now, can you navigate the magnified site by simply scrolling up and down or do you have to move left and right as well.

And the objective here is to have the information on the page rearrange itself when you magnify, so only one scrolling direction, preferably up and down as needed. Basically your screen becomes like a big cell phone, a long, narrow interface and things will adjust.

And if you realize that, yeah, things are moving, but you don't like where they've moved to, a lot of times if you're not a coder and you're using a tool CMS with blocks that you move, you can, in your editor, go into mobile editing mode and move things just in mobile mode.

You obviously want to flip back and make sure that you haven't done anything that affects the desktop site. But you can typically edit in that fashion to just help your magnified display, also your mobile display. And then also use descriptive links to provide magnification users with the best possible information about where those links go. Again in our plain language BADA, you get a twofer on that one. And I'm going to bounce this back over to Jay for extra tools and resources and then it's question time.

Oh, Herin had a great comment. So there's many different magnification mode. So zooming by resolution, by scaling, and that does have different implications to users. So yeah, that's an excellent point that users might use different ways to magnify and that's going to affect the display in different ways. That's a really great point. Oh, Jay you're muted, sorry.

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: There we go. All right. So we're going to go over just a couple of tools and resources for you today. And hopefully as we've been talking about all these different modes and settings, you've already been playing around in your computers and settings.

Thankfully it hasn't caused any of you to bounce out because that would beat me, adjusting things. So let's go ahead and take a quick peek at what we have for you to play around with today. So the first one is just a link that shows you how to turn on the color filter on your Mac.

We also provided you with a link to a Color Oracle or a Colorblind Simulator. These are not an exhaustive list by any means, these are just some things that we've run into, or that we've used personally, that we thought were interesting and helpful.

The last one is the Color Contrast Analyzer. I love this one, this is always a fun thing to do, especially when I'm working with people on slides and they say, "Oh, I think this is great."

 And I'm like, "Oh, that looks a little hanky on the color contrast." Because then I can just click, click and it takes me right to where I need to go.

So all really nice, simple, easy tools. If you have any tools. This has always been a great group of sharing facts and information. So if there's other tools that you like to use to either test your colors, maybe look at how layout's going to go, please feel free to share.

And then let's go on to our resources here. And then I think we've actually probably sourced these elsewhere in the slides, but just so that way you have them. Just again, low vision considerations, talking again about video descriptions and then the tips for designing. And then let's go to our questions, okay.

Erica Braverman: We had a great question come in early on.

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY:  Great.

Erica Braverman: And this is coming from someone's iPhone. "Do all screen readers sound pretty much alike, like machines? Do any of them have inflection like humans? What is the future of these machines to be more realistic, more human and less machine?"

That's a great question. And I would say that no, no screen reader sounds exactly like a human, they're all computer generated voice just for consistency. But there's a lot of variation in terms of speed, there's male and female voices, there's pitch, there's accent.

 I've seen a few British accents come through on usability studies. And then different languages, you can set your screen reader to reading different languages.

So there's a lot of customization. I remember one time I was part of a study and the researcher was pretty experienced and she had worked with this participant before. The participant came in, they were a screen reader user, and they shared their computer audio. Screen reader starts talking and the researcher says to the participant, "Oh, who's that? She is new. It's like we met a new screen reader, a new part of your life."

So people can change these things around. Rebecca says she uses a text spacing bookmarklet, oo, that's awesome, to check WCAG 2.1 and that's WCAG principle 1.4.12. Thank you so much for that. I'm going to be playing with that later.

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: Really we just asked so we can play with stuff later. It's what we're all about. All right, so while we let some other people put in their favorite tools and their questions, we're going to go ahead and go to the next slide here.

Erica Braverman: Oh, it's just refreshed, page turn off. Good tip.

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: Oh, nice. Okay. So of course we love your feedback, we love doing these, but we always want to make sure. I mean, we have a good time, but we want to make sure they're helpful and beneficial for you too. So we do encourage you to check out our survey.

I'm going to go ahead and put that in the link right now, and that is just a Bitly link. It is B-I-T-.-L-Y/ JulySurveyBADA. July with the capital J, survey with the capital S and then BADA is all capitalized, B-A-D-A. Make sure I type that in properly, there we go. All right, and then we'll go onto our next one.

Erica Braverman: Oops. Oh, I opened the survey by mistake. Well, this is what you're going to get folks. All right, here we go.

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: All right, our next session, we're going to be talking about documents and PDFs. So just best practices and formatting, what you need to know, what's the difference between a document versus a PDF. It will not be, let's all learn how to use Adobe or Acrobat or anything like that, but it will be some good information in terms of. Especially for some of us who are like, "I don't understand why I can't just use this convert PDF on my Google Docs kind of thing."

So please, please check it out. We're very excited, Julie Romanowski is going to be joining us. She is our director of the accessibility services team. So she'll be joining us.

 So you just have to go to knowbility.org/DigitalAlly, that's a capital D, capital A. That will take you to the... We have at the very top, our registration link.

But also if you want to see the videos from previous months, I know Erica talked about our plain language and our descriptive links, so you just have to scroll down to the page and you'll see those other links to our previous episodes. And we'll have this one up, we're trying to turn them out in about two weeks after the event itself.

So hopefully in about two weeks, you'll see today's recording on there as well. So that's just knowbility.org/DigitalAlly. And we'll click on the next slide. Ooh, I don't know if you all heard my house shake.

Erica Braverman: Did you get a big thunder?

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: I did. I think there's a thunderstorm out.

Erica Braverman: Latoya, yes, we can drop the link to register into the chat.

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: Yes. And then while she's doing that, I'm going to talk about AIR 2022.

Erica Braverman: I think, Jay, did you just do that, the Digital Ally?

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: I did, yes.

Erica Braverman: Okay, brilliant. Thanks. I see it now.

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: All right. So it is AIR 2022, hooray. Yes, Herin, hooray. We're really excited. This is our Accessibility Internet Rally, we are in our 24th year. This is our flagship program, this is kind of what begot Knowbility.

So this is web designers and NPOs coming together to make the world more accessible. Literally that is what we are doing. It is an eight week design competition. So web developers and designers, content creators are paired up with a NPO, so a non-profit organization, a community organization, maybe an artist or a musician, to help them design a brand new site or redesign a current site to be accessible.

You can join, as I said, as a client. So if you're interested and maybe you have an organization that you're working with, and maybe you're like, "Hey, we've been doing some stuff, but this sounds like a really good way for us to jumpstart a little bit more on our progress."

Or if you are a team, if you have some colleagues at your office, or maybe a group of people that you meet up during an accessibility meetup or something like that. Or you can register as an individual and we'll pair you up with other developers from around the world. So you just need to go to knowbility.org Oh, it looks like I typed in the Bitly wrong, so I will fix that in just a second, or the link wrong.

Erica Braverman: Yeah. Thanks Latoya for letting us know, we appreciate that.

Jessica "Jay" MCKAY: Yes. Thank you. So to register and to get more information, just go to knowbility.org/AIR, and that will take you to our AIR page. And I will get our Digital Ally page up here momentarily. All right, and I think that is it. So we'll take you to our thank you slide.

And thank you everyone for joining us. Like I said before, we always have such a great time doing these. We learn a lot. I know every time we do this, we learn a little bit more that we didn't know before. And that's really how accessibility works, you're never done, there's always something new to learn.

And again, we encourage you please fill out the survey, that helps us develop better content for you. I'm going to highly encourage you again, to check out our donate page. If you are not able to donate, if you want to send it on over to somebody else that wants to donate, we highly encourage it because that really does help us give you these programs. And have a great time. So thank you everyone. And thank you, we'll see you again next month.

Erica Braverman: Yep. Bring a friend.